Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam <p>Welcome to the <strong>Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine</strong>, the official scientific journal of the <a href="https://www.hcavs.gr">Hellenic Companion Animal Veterinary Society (H.C.A.V.S.)</a>.</p> Hellenic Companion Animal Veterinary Society en-US Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine 2241-1569 Alfaxalone: one more arrow in our arrow quiver https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/121 Tilemahos Anagnostou Copyright (c) 2022 Tilemahos Anagnostou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 11 1 75 79 Anaesthetic management of dogs and cats with intracranial pathology (brain injury, tumours, seizures) https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/120 <p>The stabilization of intracranial volume and therefore cerebral blood flow (CBF) is crucial in patients with intracranial pathology during anesthesia. Even though intracranial hypertension is not monitored, it can be manifested through clinical symptoms. Seizures, brain traumas and tumors are the most common reasons for patients with intracranial hypertension to be anesthetized. In the preanesthetic period, patients should be systemically assessed after they are triaged. Hypotension and hypovolemia should be prevented through isotonic crystalloids, while oxygenation and ventilation should be performed. Hyperventilation can be established in urgent situations. The mitigation of intracranial hypertension can be performed through slight head elevation combined with avoidance of any increase in central venous pressure. Mannitol administrated in slow boluses or hypertonic saline (3, 5%-7, 5%) are both efficient in intracranial pressure (ICP) reduction. Hyperglycemia is a measure of damage in these patients so it should not be exacerbated. Induced hypothermia can be utilized in emergency situations. Seizures manifested after brain traumas must be treated with benzodiazepines while phenobarbital or levetiracetam can be used for maintenance. Benzodiazepines and opiods are a good choice for sedation and analgesia of such patients as they have a low impact in cardiovascular function. Acepromazine is not contraindicated anymore but still must be used with caution. Alpha 2-agonists are not preferred due to the cardiovascular depression and the emesis they cause. Injectable anesthetics such as propofol and etomidate are a good choice as they reduce CBF and protect cerebral autoregulation while volatile anesthetics may easily lead to cerebral vasodilation and therefore ICP increase. Ketamine is not prohibited anymore but should be used with caution. Total intravenous anesthesia is usually preferred than using volatile agents but in any case close monitoring, dose titration and mechanical ventilation are appropriate.</p> Maria Kotsidou Alexandra Tsitsilianou George Kazakos Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Kotsidou, Alexandra Tsitsilianou, George Kazakos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 11 1 120 136 Hip dysplasia in dogs https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/119 <p data-id="_paragraph-8">Canine hip dysplasia is a disease which can be both prevented and treated. Prevention in young dogs includes conservative measures and surgical procedures, which under certain conditions can prevent the manifestation of clinical signs. Treatment begins conservatively in all animals, usually with the administration of a combination of drugs and/or biological agents, as well as changes to the lifestyle and living conditions. Results are often satisfactory. However, when conservative treatment is insufficient in alleviating clinical signs, specialised surgical procedures are performed, which might offer a definitive solution to the problem.</p> Andreas Kyriazis Nikitas Prassinos Copyright (c) 2022 Andreas Kyriazis, Nikitas Prassinos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 11 1 96 119 Α systematic review of the cardiopulmonary effects of alfaxalone when used as a main agent for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia in dogs https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/117 <p>Alfaxalone is a synthetic neuroactive steroid that has been used as an anaesthetic agent in humans, dogs, cats and other various veterinary species, as it provides smooth anaesthesia induction, adequate muscle relaxation and dose-dependant effects on the anaesthetic duration as well as the cardiopulmonary system. In order to comprehend the way alfaxalone affects both the cardiovascular and respiratory system of canine patients, the authors searched in PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus for literature in which alfaxalone was used for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia. After the assessment of twenty-eight publications, twenty of them were excluded as they were studies that were either based on intramuscular administration, or combined alfaxalone with other anaesthetic agents, or were considered biased, or used inadequate measurements and/or sample size, or used higher doses than those recommended, or they were focusing on the effects of premedication. Eight were found to meet the criteria set and their results are thoroughly presented. The occurrence of apnoea seems to be the prime restriction in the use of alfaxalone as the main agent for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia, since the rest of the cardiopulmonary parameters are only slightly to moderately affected with a possibility of respiratory acidosis, a minor drop in arterial pressure and last but not least an increase in heart rate.</p> Maria Zioga Symeon Papadopoulos Aikaterini Pavlidou Kyriaki Pavlidou Ioannis Savvas Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Zioga, Symeon Papadopoulos, Aikaterini Pavlidou, Kyriaki Pavlidou, Ioannis Savvas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 11 1 80 95 Companion animal veterinarians as One Health heroes https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/112 Pikka Jokelainen Copyright (c) 2021 Pikka Jokelainen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 11 1 9 12 Equine Sarcoids. A therapeutic challenge https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/111 Nikolaos Diakakis Panagiota Tyrnenopoulou Copyright (c) 2021 Nikolaos Diakakis, Panagiota Tyrnenopoulou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 11 1 40 49 The effect of artificial colloid solutions on renal function in severely ill dogs https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/109 <p>Colloid solutions are compounds with high molecular weight that remain intravascularly after their intravenous administration, thereby increasing colloid oncotic pressure. Colloids are of two types: natural (whole blood, albumins) and artificial (dextran and gelatine solutions, hydroxyethyl starches). Indications for artificial colloids (AC) administration include hypovolemic shock, hypoalbuminemia, haemorrhage, sepsis, hypotension or fluid accumulation in the interstitial space. Their use can be greatly beneficial; however, it can lead to anaphylactic reactions, coagulopathies, acute kidney injury (AKI) and hepatic impairment, especially when given in patients with sepsis. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between AC administration and AKI development in intensive care unit (ICU) in dogs. The studies were collected from the major medical electronic databases. Only three studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated for their methods, the limitations were identified, and the results were presented. As it turns out from the three studies, the administration of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 and 250/0.5/5:1 is not associated with AKI and it does not increase the mortality rate in ICU patients, when given constantly up to 10 days or in low doses. This review is highly informative, as until today, there are no guidelines for AC administration in companion animals. AC administration seems to be beneficial and safe in some cases, when given in low doses and for specific time period. However, the existing data is limited, and further clinical studies are needed to establish safer results.</p> Evdoxia Magrioti Eleni Prastiti Vasileios Christodoulou Despina Christofi Kiriaki Pavlidou Ioannis Savvas Copyright (c) 2021 Evdoxia Magrioti, Eleni Prastiti, Vasileios Christodoulou, Despina Christofi, Kiriaki Pavlidou, Ioannis Savvas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 11 1 13 22 Clinical signs of corneal lesions in dog and cat https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/108 <p>Corneal damage in dog and cat can alter its clarity and transparency in light, which are essential for its function. Corneal lesions include edema, neovascularisation, pigmentation, microcrystal depositions, ulceration, inflammation or regenerative tissue formation, scar formation and finally those involving its size and curvature. This lesion may occur solely or in conjunction and may be caused by corneal, other ophthalmic or systemic diseases. In this study the above mentioned corneal lesions of the dog and cat are extensively reported and described.</p> I. K. Liapis Copyright (c) 2012 I. K. Liapis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-06-22 2012-06-22 11 1 24 37 Aetiopathogenesis and consequences of chronic feline kidney disease https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/107 <p>Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by irreversible structural lesions of the kidneys and may lead to chronic renal failure (CRF), which eventually results in accumulation of metabolic toxins and dysregulation of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. CKD mainly affects geriatric cats. In the majority of animals the initiating factor of CKD remains unclear. Idiopathic, familial, congenital, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic causes have been suggested. Once lesions have adequately progressed, the condition is generally self-perpetuated. The main clinical signs are anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Early diagnosis of CKD is crucial. Anaemia, azotaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypokalaemia may be detected by laboratory examination. Radiology and ultrasonography of the abdominal cavity may contribute to identification of the initiating factor. Renal histopathology may aid in diagnosing the primary cause. Consequences of CKD are multisystemic and include arterial hypertension, renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, anaemia, gastrointestinal complications, and acid-base and diverse electrolyte disturbances.</p> K. K. Adamama-Moraitou T. S. Rallis Copyright (c) 2012 K. K. Adamama-Moraitou, T. S. Rallis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-06-22 2012-06-22 11 1 2 23 Traumatic brain injury in the dog and cat https://ojs.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/106 <p>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in dogs and cats and it is mainly caused by motor vehicle accident, fall, human violent acts and attacks from other animals. Damages in TBI are divided in primary and secondary. Primary damages take place immediately as a result of the direct mechanical destruction of the neural tissue at the time of trauma, while secondary brain damages occur within a few minutes or days following the traumatic event and they are caused by systemic extracranial injuries and intracranial biochemical alterations.&nbsp;Initial assessment of an animal with TBI is focused on the life-threatening injuries and it is followed by the performance of neurologic examination.&nbsp;It is difficult for the clinician to control primary brain damage. Treatment efforts must start immediately and their aim is to stabilize the animal, prevent and treat the secondary brain damages. At first general measures are taken to restore and maintain brain oxygenation. This is achieved by supporting the circulatory system with fluids and by oxygen supplementation. The aim of instituting specific measures is to minimize the brain injury.&nbsp;TBI is associated with high mortality rates in both humans and animals. However, dogs and cats exhibit remarkable rehabilitation ability, provided that extended follow up is granted after a severe brain trauma. For this reason, it is strongly recommended to not infer hasty conclusions about prognosis based on the initial status of an animal presented with TBI.</p> M. Kantere P. Tsompanidou G. M. Kazakos Copyright (c) 2012 M. Kantere, P. Tsompanidou, G. M. Kazakos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-12-21 2012-12-21 11 1 20 38